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hybrid laser welding: a review.

by:QUESTT     2020-07-31
The introduction of hybrid laser welding is based on the coupling of different heat sources and laser sources technically.
The basic idea is to maximize their respective advantages and reduce the defects that characterize the welding process.
In their 70 sM. Steen (Steen, 1980)
The first hybrid welding process combining laser with atungsten inert gas is introduced (TIG)source.
In the following years, high power laser source technology has developed, so laser welding has become a profitable and reliable industrial process (Ready, 1997).
Over the years, the wide application of laser welding technology in industry has also highlighted its shortcomings (
Cost, edge preparation and positioning, metallurgical issues).
It was found that by coupling the laser with the conventional arc welding method, it was possible to minimize or suppress its delay.
In fact, traditional arc welding methods improve process efficiency, minimize metallurgical difficulties, and reduce difficulties related to material reflectivity (
Seyffarth & krittsun, 2002; Steen, 2003).
Therefore, the development of laser welding and mixed welding in industry is closely related to the development of high power laser equipment.
These defects, due to the use of the hybrid welding process this year, represent the cause of the investigation of the hybrid laser.
Arc welding in several scientific and industrial environments (Magee et al. , 1990; Beyer et al. , 1994;
1999. diltai and vischman; Ishide et al. ,2002).
Custom blank industry is the first industry to invest in hybrid laser
Wide and high quality welding is required due to high speed welding;
Subsequently, many industrial areas such as construction, shipbuilding and plumbing industries were attracted.
Today, through the application of hybrid laser, the connection of metal materials
Arc welding technology has been applied to the integrated mixing weldingheads (
Bagger & Olsen, 2005).
In addition, the use of robots for three welding can achieve high degree of automation
Size welding task.
However, many different requirements and related issues need to be tested and simulated.
In a hybrid laser, the material to be connected may be particularly important
Welding process. Thegeometry (
Thickness and joint shape)
A systematic study of the workpiece is required. 1. 1 Hybrid laser-
The development of arc welding process laser welding has the advantages of fast welding speed and high productivity, and the heat input generated due to the high concentration of energy is low.
Reduce rework after welding, there is no mechanical contact between the laser equipment and the workpiece, the possibility of adding different materials is a lot of important advantages.
These advantages reveal some of the shortcomings of the process, as precise machining and positioning of the parts to be welded is required.
Further disadvantages are the high cost of equipment and maintenance, limited welding position, poor electrical efficiency, and sometimes (e. g.
Stainless steel)
Metallurgical problems due to high cooling speed.
In addition, materials with high reflectivity can often lead to difficult welding and metallurgical problems.
Therefore, laser welding can be very expensive for some applications.
In order to avoid these problems, a hybrid welding technology was developed to combine the laser welding process with the arc process, namely, hybrid laser weldingarc welding. In hybridlaser-
A. laser (C[O. sub. 2]or YAG)
With arcprocess (
(Including TIG, MIG, MAG or plasma).
The laser beam provides the possibility to produce deeper welds in a single weld, while the arc energy is used to increase the welding speed and fill fit
Make up for the defect between the parts to be connected. To sum-
Hybrid Laser-
Arc welding combines the advantages of arc and laser processes, improves assembly tolerances and does not affect joint quality and deformation control.
Benefits to industry include increased productivity and simplified setup-
Increase the procedure and reduce the cost of rework after welding.
However, the technology has only experienced slow growth in today\'s industry.
Some of the reasons for this slow acceptance are the high cost of investment and the complexity of the process due to the large number of parameters.
The setting of processing parameters requires a high degree of skill and accuracy, and these necessary conditions, coupled with incomplete understanding of the processing process, are the limiting factors for industrial applications.
Most applications for mixed welding today are limited to plates in the range of 1 to 10mm, but thick materials may also benefit from this connection process.
In recent years, with the industrial development of shipbuilding and automobile manufacturing, deep welding penetration and welding of thick steel plates and aluminum alloys may be required,
MIG \\ MAG hybrid welding has become more and more attractive and has been applied in practice in many industrial fields (
Graf & Staufer, 2003; Jasnau et al. , 2004).
Therefore, the importance of studying the actual impact of the main process parameters and the repeatability of the entire application is the key goal to be achieved. 2. Hybrid laser-
Although the hybrid laser welding process is described
Compared with laser welding and arc welding, arc welding provides a significant advantage, and the coupling of these two processes leads to an increase in the number of parameters.
More parameter values are correct for a single process, and may not be optimal for successful welding of a mixed process, because the parameters have a great influence on each other.
Therefore, an accurate study of all these parameters is essential for process stability and repeatability, maximizing penetration, joint size and mechanical properties, and cost-to-power ratio optimization.
The type of laser source used, usually C [O. sub. 2]
Or Nd: YAG, and the associated wavelength, is an important parameter to consider because it affects the selection of other process parameters.
Due to the low interaction with the arc plasma, Nd: YAGlaser radiation allows for closer arc than C [O. sub. 2]
Laser radiation, so the distance between light sources depends on the type of laser light source (Petring et al. , 2003).
In laser welding, an increase in laser power can lead to an increase in penetration depth.
In mixed laser welding, this phenomenon is often emphasized because the reflectivity of the workpiece metal decreases when the metal is heated by an arc.
In recent years, with the continuous increase of output power and high beam quality, fiber laser has captured the difficult application field of high-power fiber laser. O. sub. 2]
Laser welding, such as titanium alloy (Li et al. , 2009).
Hybrid Laser-
For heat sources, two different layouts can be used to achieve the arc process, or rather, the laser source can be the first to weld metal (
Laser-led mixing process)
Or the last one (
Arc mixing process).
The selection depends on several factors such as metal substrate properties, laser power supply, arc source type. [
Figure 1 slightly]
In addition, the distance between the laser source and the arc is an important parameter to control the penetration of the mixed laser
Arcwelding usually consists of values of several millimeters.
Shielding gas parameters, such as composition and protection methods, play a key role in mixing lasersarc process.
Weld depth and arc stability also depend on the protection gas.
The weld depth of mixed welding is determined by the plasma shape with the change of welding gas parameters (Gao et al. , 2007).
High power C [O. sub. 2]
When laser welding, laser-induced plasma generated by the ionization of shielding gas at the laser irradiation point can dissipate the laser energy, reduce the weld depth, and even cause the laser key hole to disappear (Beck et al. , 1995).
Shielding gases are usually composed of high speeds of inert gases such as helium or ar. When C[O. sub. 2]
Since the plasma can deflate or absorb part of the laser energy, the process requires a high ionization potential shielding gas.
Helium with high ionization potential is more popular than emphasizing penetration effects;
On the other hand, ar enhances the stability of the arc.
In addition, active gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide have an impact on the wet properties of the welding pool and the smoothness of the welding path.
The protection method includes the quantity, diameter, flow rate and arrangement of the gas nozzle relative to the heat source, such as the side shaft (
Lead or fall behind)or coaxial.
When the gas metal arc is combined with the laser beam, the stability of the gas metal arc is emphasized (Dilthey et al. , 1999).
In order to achieve this enhancement, the arc must be close enough to the laser beam so that they can share the same fusion pool.
In fact, if the source distance of the hybrid technology is too far, the arc becomes unstable and the penetration decreases.
Nevertheless, if the distance is too short, the laser is absorbed by the laser and the arc plasma, the metal filler blocks the penetration of the laser (Ishide etal. , 2003). [
Figure 2:
The mixing phenomenon between the deep, narrow molten pool and the wide and shallow molten pool produced by the arc source.
The best distance depends on many other factors such as laser power, torch angle, arcsize (
Arc parameters such as current, voltage and Pulse).
Chen ,(
Kutsuna & Chen, 2002)
The distance to optimize the process efficiency is studied.
They found that for a hybrid process with 2mm laser power and 200A arc current, it is equal to 2 KW.
This result shows the complexity of the process and therefore there is no absolute general rule.
The focus position of the laser beam relative to the surface of the workpiece and the welding current affects the penetration of the weld.
At constant laser power and welding speed, the higher the arc current, the deeper the Focus below the surface of the workpiece must be in order to obtain good penetration (El Rayes et al. , 2004).
In fact, if the current rises, the depth of the welding pool increases.
If the laser is placed in a plane outside the surface of the workpiece, it does not move in the resulting weld and therefore cannot reach the maximum penetration.
To sum up, the maximum weld depth of the hybrid laser-
When the laser beam is focused below the surface of the top layer plate, the arc process is usually obtained, and its value is related to the welding current.
In order to achieve a stable and repeatable process, the base metal transfer mode is important: the Pulse/jet arc should take precedence over the short/spherical-
ARC, low turbulence caused by small filled metal drops hitting the Weld (Campana et al. , 2007).
The angle of the electrode will affect the penetration of the weld, because the airflow provided by the arc torch will deflate the plasma induced by thelaser, thus changing the absorption of the laser beam.
This angle of the electrode with the top surface of the workpiece is usually set at 40-60 degrees.
In fact, in order to ensure maximum penetration, the laser beam must be as perpendicular as possible to the surface of the workpiece, so the angle does not exist.
However, if the metal has a high reflectivity, the laser beam can be reflected and damaged inside the laser head (
Rasmussen and Fort Du, 2005)
Therefore, many studies use laser beam angles that must be different from the angle of the electrode. [
Figure 3 slightly]
The fast welding speed is an advantage of the mixed welding process, which is closely related to the penetration depth.
When the welding speed is reduced, the weld penetration increases because the heat input length of the weld is higher.
At a lower welding speed, the gap filling capacity is improved (
When the wire is constantly filled).
The ratio between the welding speed and the filler wire feed is essential for the stability of the key hole and the stability of the process itself.
On the other hand, the high travel speed of the mixed welding process leads to a rapid heating and cooling cycle of the workpiece, and many metallurgical defects may occur in the welding melting area.
The tool welding speed increases penetration but expands the melting area until the metal combustion limit.
In addition, the optimum welding speed increases as the gap increases, because the heat input in the metal decreases as the gap increases (Nielsen et al. , 2002). In thelaser-
Arc welding, due to the emergence of laser key holes and deep penetration processes, laser power is the main heat source for improving welding efficiency (Gao et al. , 2006).
The ratio of the power of the two power sources obtained by dividing the arc power by the elastic power is an important factor in mixed welding;
The geometry and metallurgical properties of the joint depend strictly on the balance between the influence of the laser source and the arc source.
For mixed welds, increasing the energy ratio of the laser to the arc can reduce the weld width, reduce the trend of grain growth, and change the microstructure of the melting zone.
The White low energy ratio of the mixed Weld has a softened heat-affected zone, while the high energy ratio does not soften due to the low line energy.
At a constant feed rate of filled metal and laser power, a higher power arc causes the width of the bead to increase until the maximum value is reached.
Beyond this limit, the width will be reduced or remain the same, depending on the amount of wire feed, in order to reduce distortion and overcome the bridge problem of the expected standard in the shipbuilding industry, several programs have been developed for Nd: YAG laser
MAG hybrid welding of the joint.
In technical problems, the formation of pores caused by shop Primer (
For shipbuilding industry)
Methods for coating steel surfaces to prevent corrosion have been studied in the literature (
Hong Kong and Lee, 2005).
On the other hand, many studies focus on the high automation potential of the hybrid welding process (Olschok etal. , 2007).
Composite welding can allow time and cost savings by reducing more
Through the requirements, take advantage of the depth penetration that this process provides.
Many studies have been carried out on the welding properties of materials, such as ultra-high temperature stainless steel (Walz et al. , 2001)
On the effectiveness of cost reduction in hybrid technology (Reutzel et al. , 2006)
For the pipe industry.
Due to its low density, light metals made of aluminum, magnesium and titanium are particularly attractive to the aerospace industry.
Strength and fatigue strength are critical in these applications, so many studies focus on this feature (Vaidya et al. , 2006).
Thick aluminum alloy up to 12mm has been successfully docked using Nd: Yag-
Hybrid technology of high power laser fiber-MIG
MiG mixing process (Allen et al. , 2006).
Therefore, high quality mixed welds are proven to be profitable in this application.
This technology is particularly interested in these industries when dealing with titanium alloys.
Today, high quality welds with CP-using fiber laser with arc sourceTi sheets of 1.
The thickness of 5mm is feasible with a speed of up to 9 m/min (Li et al. , 2009).
Due to the need for control clearance and groove tolerance for welded thick plates, high welding speed and deep penetration are critical in the field of power generation construction.
The 20mm thick Austrian stainless steel can be welded with a Nd: YAG laser coupled with a multi-arc sourcepasstechnique (
Jokinen & Ku Janpa, 2003).
The challenge now is the continuous development of welding technology, which can produce qualified, less welding time and lower deformation while respecting tolerance requirements.
Other possible applications of the hybrid process are related to the railway transport industry, bridge manufacturing and chemical plants.
In all of these areas, hybrid welding shows superior performance compared to laser welding, and slowly replaces it in these industries.
Of course, these are just a few applications of the hybrid welding process. At present, the hybrid welding process is in a comprehensive stage of development. 8.
The conclusion today is that hybrid welding technology is expected to become a technology with high productivity.
Welding speed, gap bridging capability, low thermal load, high thickness, welding quality and reduced operating costs are some of the advantages.
However, due to the increase in physical complexity and the relative setting of several process parameters, the combination of the two processes is a challenge.
Controlling this process requires an in-depth understanding of the interaction between the two different heat sources.
Nowadays, in the literature, there are many differences in the advantages and disadvantages of the mixing process, which is due to the still partial understanding of the processes related to the interaction between parameters, and still partially unknown. Hybrid laser-
Arc welding can significantly affect a large number of industries because it can improve welding quality, productivity, cost savings, and affect construction methods, production examples, and the commercial economy.
In this work, some research on hybrid laser
With the updated application of the industry, arc welding has emerged.
This study represents a state of art, which is still in progress due to the continuous advancement of technology and science.
Future scientific research will focus on improving the potential of hybrid laser welding by studying in depth the interaction and correlation between the laser beam and the arc and the impact on the final weld.
Due to the rapid development of the industry, the authors believe it is necessary to have a new review in a few years. DOI: 10. 2507/daaam. scibook. 2010. 38 9.
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Data from 8166 authors: professorIng. Casalino, G[iuseppe]; Ing. Dal Maso,U[mberto]; Ing. Angelastro, A[ndrea]; Ing. Campanelli, S[abina]L[uisa]
Digg pollitnik, Bari, Italy Viale Japigia 182,70126. Casalino @ poliba. it, u. dalmaso@poliba. it, a.
Angelastro @ poliba.
Now, campanel @ poliba.
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